Глоссарий ювелирных терминов


Государственное пробирное клеймо (проба) —
это специальный знак, который чеканится на ювелирных изделиях государственными инспекциями пробирного надзора.
Проба сплавов благородных металлов, из которых разрешено изготавливать ювелирные и другие изделия, устанавливается законом и гарантируется государством. Государственное пробирное клеймо состоит из знака удостоверения и знака пробы, которые могут быть проставлены вместе (в одном изображении) или отдельно.

В России все изделия из драгоценных металлов обязательно проходят пробирный контроль и на них накладываются оттиски государственных пробирных клейм, цифры которых определяют чистоту пробы. Для клеймения в различных странах применяются пробирные клейма разнообразных форм и рисунков. В Беларуси — это изображение зубра, в России с 1994 года — женская голова в кокошнике.

В СССР система клеймления пробированного металла включала в себя 3, иногда 2 клейма: клеймо производителя, численное обозначение пробы и пробирное клеймо в виде пятиконечной звезды в рамке. При отсутствии численного обозначения форма рамки клейма определяла параметры (в том числе и пробу) пробируемого сплава.

Изделия из драгоценных металлов, изготовленные на территории РФ, а также импортированные для продажи на территории РФ, должны быть заклеймены основным клеймом ГИПН и соответствовать российским пробам. Это делается в первую очередь для защиты прав потребителей и отечественных производителей от недобросовестной конкуренции (подделок).

В США, Турции и Италии не существует единого образца клейм, и каждая фабрика или фирма имеет свой образец маркировки ювелирных изделий. Помните, что в этих странах ответственность за качество золота несет не государство, а непосредственно производитель. Всего в мире используется три системы проб: золотниковая, метрическая и каратная:

В метрической системе первые две цифры говорят о процентном содержании благородного металла в 1000 частей сплава. Например, в изделии 750-й пробы содержится 75% чистого золота, а в серебряном изделии 925-й пробы содержится 92.5% серебра, в зависимости от чистоты пробы оставшуюся часть составляют примеси. Металлы, входящие помимо золота в состав сплавов, называют лигатурой.
В рамках данной системы применяются следующие пробы: 1000, 958, 900, 750, 585, 500, 375, 333.

Ювелирные украшения традиционно изготавливают из сплавов 750-й и 585-й, реже из 500-й и 375-й проб. Чистое золото (1000-й пробы) в производстве ювелирных изделий не используется, так как оно слишком мягкое и легко ломается. Золотой сплав самой высокой пробы — 958-й (95,8 процента золота) — используется в художественных промыслах, из него создаются произведения искусства. 900-я проба идет, в основном, на производство зубных протезов. Украшения, изготовленные из сплавов ниже 375-й пробы, ювелирными уже не считаются — это бижутерия.

Во многих странах — Италии, Англии, США — для определения проб золотых изделий пользуются каратной системой. Эта система проб имеет германские корни и предусмотрена только для золотых сплавов. В ней чистому золоту соответствует проба в 24 карата. Эту единицу измерения нельзя путать с единицей измерения массы алмазов и других драгоценных камней, где 1 карат равен 0,2 грамма.
При переводе из каратной системы проб в метрическую принимается, что один карат соответствует 1/5 г.
Существуют следующие пробы каратной системы: 6 к, 8 к, 10 к, 12 к, 14 к, 18 к, 22 к. Например, золотая проба 22 к означает, что в 24 единицах сплава, из которого изготовлено данное изделие, 22 единицы чистого золота.

Между собой эти три системы соотносятся следующим образом:

Метрическая Золотниковая Каратная
1000 — (999,9) 96 24
Серебро 960 92 23
Платина 950 91 22
Серебро 925 89 22
Серебро 875 84 21
Палладий 850 82 20,5
Серебро 830 80 20
Серебро 800 77 19
Золото 750 72 18
Золото 583/585 56 14
Золото, палладий 500 48 12
Золото 375 36 9
Золото 333  - 8

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Финагель
 — продолговатый формы кусок дерева твёрдой породы (пальмы, самшита) имеет клинообразную форму.
Рабочая часть ювелирного стола, служит упором при осуществлении таких работ как выпиливании лобзиком, опиливании и шабрении.


Чернь — это такой черный порошок, его сыпят на гравированный участок изделия:

При нагреве в 400 градусов чернь плавясь затекает в выгравированные углубления и после охлаждения застывает в них:

Затем излишки черни сшлифовывают с поверхности изделия и проявляется рисунок.

Подробнее про чернь тут

Многие путают и называют чернением — оксидирование. Про оксидирование читайте ниже.

 


Оксидирование — создание оксидной плёнки на поверхности изделия в результате окислительно-восстановительной реакции. Оксидирование преимущественно используют для получения защитных и декоративных покрытий.
В ювелирном деле для оксидирования изделия чаще всего пользуются серной печенью. Серная печень обычно готовится сплавлением 2:1 или 1:1 серы и поташа. В горячий раствор воды с серной печенью окунается серебряное изделие, в результате оно темнеет буквально на глазах. После сушки изделие полируется. Темная пленка с выступающих мест сполировывается, а в углублениях остается, в результате чего получается необходимый эффект, придающий изделию объем, контраст.

 

 

Глоссарий ювелирных терминов: 94 комментария

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